Latin America

Laura O., Marc B., Daniel T.

Foundations to 600 CE

South America

Laura O.


      Most of the population were farmers

      There were traders and craftsmen

      There was many human sacrifices

      Family and clan ties


      Equal under law

      They had a tribe council.

o   Each clan had a representative.

      The supreme chief led the war

      Theoretically democratic


      Trade was carried on by barter

      Agriculture was popular

      Cannibalism was popular


      Architecture and sculpture


      House of youth

o    To learn about the tribal ways

South America

      The priests would keep a calendar (solar) that was precise. The almanac gave the people dates for festivals and other occasions.

      Trade was carried on by barter, because the Aztecs had not invented money.

Change could be made in cacao beans.

      There were chinampas, called permanent island farms.

      Priesthood had a strong influence toward tribal characteristics, but it did not have a huge impact on the government.

      The Aztecs participated in cannibalism, because they thought that if they ate their victims, they would in some way be rewarded.

      Empires started to develop in South America and Mesoamerica. In South America, it was the Inca, and in Mesoamerica it was the Maya and Aztec.


25,000 BCE- Migration of people from Siberia to tip of South America

35 BC- The first glyph writing took place, and the first dated monument from the Olmecs.

600 - 1450

    This time period in South America was important in shaping the continent how is it today. The Huari peoples started to excel both agriculturally and with trade between the other small villages in Peru at the time. Also at the coast of South America, the Tiahuanaco people started to rise, in similar ways, but mainly with its war parties and tactics. Nazca and Moche were coexisting civilizations in the Andes Mountain area of the Americas, but the civilization of Moche was limited in communicating with the Ica-Nazca areas. Both of these civilizations collapsed in the year of 700. 
    The Mayan civilizations in about 850 started to fade away as the empire was declining all throughout its territories. The Toltecs because of Mayan decline were able to become more powerful because the Mayan territories were left weakened. Around 1100 CE the Anasazi's cliff dwellings started to flourish and became more frequent, also during this time the Incas started to become a powerful nation. During the years of 900-1150 AD Chaco Canyon became a major center of culture for the Ancient Pueblo people. Being a center of culture, this area started to thrive off of the trade from other civilizations. In Mexica valley, the militaristic Aztec Empire started to come to power around 1120. Also, during the Spanish explorations of the Americas, horses were brought over into the new world in around the year of 1150. The last major event in this time period was the destruction of the Toltec Civilization in 1175.

Timeline for 600-1450

  • 700: The civilizations of Nazca and Moche collapse
  • 850: Maya decline throughout the empire
  • 900: Toltecs expand in South America
  • 1100: Anasazi cliff dwellings flourish/Beginning of Incas
  • 1115: Chaco canyon thriving trade and society
  • 1120: Aztecs begin in Mexica Valley
  • 1150: Horses brought to new world by Spanish
  • 1175: Destruction of Toltec civilization

Timeline for 1450 - 1750 by Daniel T.

  •       1519: Cortez is on Yucatan Peninsula
  •       1521: Aztecs lose to Cortez    
  •       1532: Incan empire overthrown by Pizarro
  •       1541: Coronado adventures to America and explores America
  •       1550: Slaves are imported into Brazil by the Portuguese        
  •       1612: Tobacco is grown for the first time as a commercial crop
  •       1675:  the spanish persecute the Pueblo people
  •       1711: Portuguese has conflict with Brazil

1750 - 1914 by Daniel T.

  • 1782: In the Americas, there was revolt against Spanish Rule
  • 1804: Haiti begins to claim independence, after the slaves rebelled
  • 1808:Movements of Independence in Spanish and portugeuse america
  • 1810: Revolution begins in Spanish America
  • 1815: Venezuela is reconquered
  • 1821: Peru declares independance
  • 1826: All of the spanish American colonies gain there independance
  • 1844: Haitiamn/dominicain Conflicts
  • 1850: Slave trade ends in Brazil
  • 1870: War of the pacific, Peru, Chile, and Brazil are all involved
  • 1897: Cuban uprising against the Spanish Rule

1750-1914 Laura Olsen

1. Interaction between humans and the environment.
     -Human economic growth was greatly increased from 1880-1920
          -This was caused from a greater demand in for raw materials such as food, and tropical crops. 
2. Development and interaction of cultures
     -Religion: role of the church was important
3. State-building, expansion, and conflict
     -In the 19h century, they fought for political independence
     -Created new nations
4. Creation, expansion and interaction of economic systems
     -Latin American economies were affected by the effect of the wars of independence.                                                                                
5. Development and transformation of social structures. 
     -New nations had social inequalities, which led to political fragmentation.  


1914 - Present

  • 1915-The U.S. invades Haiti and the Dominican republic
  • 1918-Influenza epidemic strikes, millions of casualties ensue
  • 1930-Brazil and Argentina have revolutions
  • 1936-Paraguay becomes the first fascist nation in the Americas
  • WWII-South America stays as far away from the war as possible
  • WWII-South America also stays clear of other conflicts effecting the world at this time
  • 1967-Che Guavera, the Agrentinian revolutionist, is killed by the troops in Bolivia
  • 1977-The Americas give Panama back the Panama Canals
  • 1994-Polio is declared eradicated form the Americas, this is partly due to the rising number of polio vaccines

5 Themes for 1914-Present
    Interaction between humans and the enviroment
    Development and interaction of cultures
Interaction between the rest of the world was limited during the World Wars because most of Latin America decided to sit out on the war, so they didn't bring unneeded conflict to their countries and territories. Influenza ravaged South America killing millions of people, somewhat halted the development
    State-building, expansion, and conflict

    Creation, expansion, and interaction of economic systems

    Development  and transformation of social structures