Latin America


Vocabulary 1450-1750
Haciendas-Large agricultural states in Latin America
Pochtecas-Another name for Aztec merchants

Vocabulary 1750-1914 By Laura Olsen 

Louis Pasteur- French scientist who discovered relationship between germs and disease in 19th century, leading to better sanitation. 

Benjamin Disraeli- Leading conservative political figure in Britain in the second half of the 19th century; took initiative of granting vote to working class males in 1867; typical of conservative politician making use of popular politics. 

Count Camillo di Cavour- Architect of Italian unification in 1858; formed an alliance with France to attack Austrian control of northern Italy; resulted in creation of constitutional monarchy under Piedmontese king. 

Otto Von Bismarck- Conservative prime minister of Prussia; architect of German unification under Prussian king in 1870 ; utilized liberal reforms to attract support for conservative causes. 

American Civil War- Fought from 1861 to 1865; first application of Industrial Revolution to warfare; resulted in abolition of slavery in the United States and reunification of North and South.

Trasformismo- Political system in late 19th century Italy that promoted alliance of conservatives and liberals; parliamentary deputies of all parties supported the status quo. 

Social Question- Issues relating to repressed classes in Western Europe during the Industrial Revolution, particularly workers and women; became more critical than constitutional issues after 1870.

Socialism- Political movement with origins in western Europe during the 19th century; urged an attack on private property in the name of equality; wanted state control of means of production, end to capitalist exploitation of the working man. 

Feminist movements- Sought various legal and economic gains for women, including equal access to professions and higher education; came to concentrate on right to vote; won support particularly from middle-class women; active in western Europe at the end of the 19th century; revived in light of other issues in the 1960s. 

Mass leisure culture- An aspect of the later Industrial Revolution; based on newspapers, music halls, popular theater, vacation trips, and team sports. 

Albert Einstein- Developed mathematical theories to explain the behavior of planetary motion and the movement of electrical parties; after 1900 issued theory of relativity. 

Sigmund Freuid- Viennese physician who developed theories of the workings of the human subconscious; argued that behavior is determined by impulses. 

Romanticism- Artistic and literary movement of the 19th century in Europe; held that emotion and impression, not reason, were the keys to the mysteries of human experience and nature; sought to portray passions, not calm reflection. 

Triple Alliance- Alliance among Germany, Austria- Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War 1.

Triple Entente- Alliance among Britain, Russia, and France at the outset of the 20th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War 1. 

Balkan Nationalism- Movements to create independent nations within the Balkan possessions of the Ottoman Empire; provoked a series of crises within the European alliance system; eventually led to World War 1. 

Sepoys- Troops that served the British East India Company; recruited from various warlike peoples of India. 

British Raj- British political establishment in India; develpoed as a result of the rivalry between France and Britain in India. 

Mataram- Kingdom that controlled interior regions of Java in 17th century; Dutch East India Company paid tribute to the kingdom for rights of trade at Batavia; weakness of kingdom after 1670s allowed Dutch to exert control over all of Java .

Plassey- Battle in 1757 between troops of the British East India company and an Indian army under Siraj ud-daula, ruler of Bengal; British victory requested in control of northern India. 

Robert Clive- Architect of British victory at Plassey in 1757; established foundations of British Raj in northern India (18th century) 

Presidencies- Three districts that made up the bulk of the directly ruled British territories in India; capitals at Madras, Calcutta, and Bombay. 

Princely states- Domains of Indian princes allied with the British Raj; agents of East India Company were stationed at the rulers’ courts to ensure compliance; made up over one-third of the British Indian Empire. 

Nabobs- Name given to British representatives of the East India Company who went briefly to India to make fortunes through graft and exploitation. 

Lord Charles Cornwallis- Reformer of the East India Company administration of India in the 1790s; reduced power of local British administrators; checked widespread corruption.

Ram Mohun Roy- Western-educated Indian leader, early 19th century; cooperated with British to outlaw sati.